First Peoples

Photo: The Wilsons

What is our Land Acknowledgement?

“We respectfully acknowledge that we are on the treaty and traditional territory of the Mississauga Anishinaabeg. We offer our gratitude to the First Peoples for the care for, and teachings about, our earth and relations. May we honour those teachings.”


A Land Acknowledgement is a formal statement that is an expression of gratitude and appreciation to those whose territory we reside on and recognizes the unique and enduring relationship that exists between the Indigenous Peoples and their traditional territories.


What was the original name of Chandos Lake?

Prior to 1937, Chandos Lake was called Loon Lake. And it was originally called Mongosogan by the Mississauga Anishinabe – a sub-tribe of the Anishinaabe-speaking First Nations – on whose traditional territory it lies.


What does Anishinaabe mean?

Anishinaabe (usually pronounced uh-NISH-ih-NAH-bay) means “original person”. It is spelled many different ways because the different Anishinaabe communities speak different dialects. Other common spellings include Anishinabe, Anishnabe, Anishnaabe, Nishnaabe, Nishnabe, Nishnawbe, Anishnawbe and Anicinabe. When the names end in g or k, those are plural forms.


What Treaties apply to Chandos Lake?

Chandos Lake is located in the northeast corner of Treaty 20 territory. Treaty 20, also known as the Rice Lake Purchase (‘Surrender M”) was signed on Nov. 5, 1818 by representatives of the Crown and certain Anishinaabe peoples. This is the last of three Upper Canada treaties signed with Anishinaabe peoples in what is now central southern Ontario in October and November of 1818.


A 4th Treaty, Rideau Purchase Treaty 27 & 27 ¼ (applicable to a portion of eastern Chandos Lake) was signed May 31, 1819. These treaties enabled the northward expansion of settlement in Upper Canada.


Three separate and large parcels of land in southern and central Ontario were acquired by the Government of Canada in 1923, known collectively as the Williams Treaties.


Seven First Nations are signatories to the various 18th and 19th century treaties:

  • Chippewa – Beausoleil First Nation; Chippewa of Georgina Island; Chippewa of Ram
  • Mississauga – Alderville First Nation; Curve Lake First Nation; Hiawatha First Nation; Mississauga of Scugog Island
  • Alderville Indian Band et al took the Crown to court in 2012 with the position that harvesting rights associated with pre-confederation treaties signed by the Williams Treaties First Nations were not intended to be surrendered in 1923, particularly the Treaty 20 (1818) area.


Map of Williams Treaties and Pre-Confederation Treaties


Williams Treaties First Nations Harvesting Guide in Territory 20


Sources include: First Peoples House of Learning – Trent University; Philip Abbott, Ph.D. Candidate & Instructor, Department of Indigenous Studies – Trent University; Williams Treaties First Nations; Curve Lake First Nation.